Although a number of avenues are left unstated and unexplored in the present work, the last four sections dealt primarily with the historical ramifications of the spiral form found in many diverse and ancient cultural settings. Readers were asked here to question (if not reevaluate) their preconceptions concerning a a relatively large number of fields, and many may well have choosen not to do so. Some specialists may also feel that the links provided here are tenuous while others may not be comfortable with the use of esoteric sources and materials. On the other hand, it is suggested that over-specialization and an unquestioning insistence on the status quo are contributing factors that have all too often acted to restricted our knowledge and understanding of the history of Humankind. Moreover, it is becoming increasingly apparent that an inter-disciplinary approach is becoming a necessity if the massive flow of information from the Internet--essentially an immediate, global network--is to be successfully integrated. Much of the last part of the present discourse stemmed in fact from this source, which is one reason why it is being fed back here and now. Another is that the underlying message that surfaces here appears to have commenced at least 5,000 years ago and that it is both fitting and appropriate that it be made available via the same medium to any and all who care to access it.
The latter subject is
pursued in detail in this final section. It is
also intimately related to a topic that has concerned many researchers
in the past, namely the reason why so much emphasis was apparently
on the Sun and the Moon in ancient times, why this concern was
in so many ancient luni-solar monuments and why the spiral
is essentially a world-wide occurrence. It is hypothesized in the
two Sections that many of the ancient astronomical monuments were an
component of a multi-faceted humanitarian response to pass on what the
ancients had come to understand concerning the astronomical causes of
major upheavals that have afflicted life on Earth. This suggestion
is not new. Where the hypothesis differs from others is in the detailed
mathematical and astronomical material provided by texts from two
cultural sources (Hindu and Babylonian) given in the
to the last section. Based on the technical data and available
it is possible to suggest that part of the major disruptions in the
were most likely caused by symmetrical bi-polar inversions -
in the sense that they appear to be almost exact, and bi-polar in so
as two half-cycles (i.e., North-to-South and South-to-North reversals
the geographical poles) are required to arrive back at or near the
state. This said, however, it must also be admitted that by and large
the causative factors still remain unknown.
Nevertheless, in general terms the polar inversion hypothesis is not new; in fact it was implicit in Immanuel Velikovsky's controversial 1950 publication "Worlds in Collision". The latter's substantial compendium of global myths and historical material is of particular relevance in the present context, especially those references that describe both North to South and East to West reversals . Although not immediately obvious, the reader should be aware that the reversals of East and West reported in Velikovsky's material requires no physical reversal of the rotation of Earth whatsoever, in fact the apparent reversals of East and West are most logically understood to be the natural consequences of North to South (or South to North) polar reversals alone. Against this, however,it must also be accorded that Immanuel Velikovsky's work remains unpopular and controversial; for this reason a selection from the latter's historical compendium is provided for those who may wish to judge this aspect for themselves before proceeding further.
Historically there appear
to have been two major reasons why this matter
may have proved to be so elusive and so difficult to track down. The
lies in the complexity of the phenomenon itself. The second arises from
the distinct possibility that even now we are in the process of pulling
out of the last event and are still essentially in the Dark Ages, which
is why a substantial degree of chaos prevails at present.
As for what may have taken place further back in time, it remains possible that what follows here is partly a beginning, and also the retelling of a thrice-told tale ....
Since the redundancy aspect discussed in Part I is taken to be an overkill response to the major disruption we seek to determine, it is inevitable that Catastrophism occupies an important position on the agenda. That there existed some strong underlying motivation for the construction of the many ancient luni-solar monuments is beyond question; where opinions differ lie more in whether the motivation was the result of the outpouring of religious zeal and/or despotism, or a measured response to something far more compelling. But if such activities were indeed almost global in nature and as massive as we have come to suspect, then it follows that the event must have been of unprecedented magnitude. It is at this juncture that we need to consider Graham Hancock's variation of an ancient theme, the polar inversion hypothesis. This Hancock met head-on in Fingerprints of the Gods (1996) when he included a direct quotation on the matter by geologist S. K. Runcorn and then added further remarks of his own. Runcorn's conclusions were given first as follows:
There seems no doubt that the earth's magnetic field is tied up in some way to the rotation of the planet. And this leads to a remarkable finding about earth's rotation itself ...[The unavoidable conclusion is that] the earth's axis of rotation has changed also. In other words, the planet has rolled about, changing the location of the geographical poles.1Hancock next observed that:
Runcorn appears to be envisaging a complete 180-degree flip of the poles, with the earth literally tumbling - although similar paleomagnetic readings would result from a slippage of the earth's crust over the geographical poles. Either way the consequences for civilization, and indeed all life, would be unimaginably dreadful. Of course, Runcorn may be wrong; perhaps field reversals can occur in the absence of any upheavals. But he may also be right.2We have already considered Hancock's theoretical expansion on this and other potential hazards in Part I, but it is worth repeating again here. His hypothesis was as follows:
Suppose that we had calculated, on the basis of sound evidence and beyond any shadow of a doubt, that our civilization was soon to be obliterated by a titanic geological cataclysm - a 30 displacement of the earth's crust, for example, or a head-on collision with a ten-mile wide nickel-iron asteroid traveling towards us at cosmic speed.After the manner of Velikovsky, Hancock then proceeded to supply textual material in support of this hypothesis. Some of this material we have already included in Part I, but it is here that we also take up one of the main threads that weaves its way throughout the present discourse. The inversion hypothesis has indeed ancient precedents, and not least of all it occurs in Plato's Timeaus (43e) and it is also in Theaetetus in association with both the Sun and Homer's "Golden Rope" as discussed in Section V:
Of course there would at first be much panic and despair. Nevertheless - if there were sufficient advance warning - steps would be taken to ensure that there would be some survivors and that some of what was most valuable in our scientific knowledge would be preserved for the benefit of future generations.3
Socrates: Need I speak further of such things as stagnation in air and water, where stillness causes corruption and decay, when motion would keep things fresh, or to complete the argument, press into service that 'golden rope' in Homer, proving that he means by it nothing more nor less than the sun, and signifies that so long as the heavens and the sun continue to move round, all things in heaven and earth are kept going, whereas if they were bound down and brought to a standstill, all things would be destroyed and the world, as they say, turned upside down? [THEAETETUS 153e-d, Translation by Francis Macdonald Cornford, emphasis supplied]Here we find a link between the spiral, the Sun, and what would undoubtedly qualify as a major event, but then should we pay any real attention to such isolated references? Perhaps not, but can we really afford to dismiss the above out of hand? Not that it is that difficult to research in any case since polar inversions were discussed in some detail by Immanuel Velikovsky almost half a century ago in Worlds in Collision4(1950). Although the following discussion necessarily involves the latter's work, it is not concerned with the pros and cons, his scientific theories, or ongoing debates on the matter. Nor is it concerned with Velikovsky's cometary and planetary theses and the events ascribed to them, except to note what eventuated in 1950 should not continue to obscure an issue that has yet to be resolved, namely the identity of a separate phenomenon that may also have precipitated reports of unusual celestial events in the historical past.Those unacquainted with the controversies stirred up by Worlds in Collision in 1950 may wish to read the original work, a summary from Velikovsky's own viewpoint in his last book, Stargazers and Gravediggers5 (published posthumously in 1983) and the biographical essay Velikovsky in America by Duane Voorhees.
He (the astronomer royal) started with a concise description of the catastrophes, so good that I should like to reproduce it here:
'The central theme of Worlds in Collision is that, according to Dr. Velikovsky, between the fifteenth and eighth centuries B.C. the earth experienced a series of violent catastrophes of global extent. Parts of its surface were heated to such a degree that they became molten and great streams of lava welled out; the sea boiled and evaporated; rivers ran with [the color of] blood; mountain ranges collapsed, while others were thrown up; continents were submerged; tremendous earthquakes occurred; enormous tides were raised causing great floods; showers of hot stones fell; electrical disturbances of great violence caused much havoc; hurricanes swept the earth; a pall of darkness shrouded it, to be followed by a deluge of fire. This picture of a period of intense turmoil within the period of recorded history is supported by a wealth of quotations from the Old Testament, from the Hindu Vedas, from Roman and Greek mythology, and from the myths traditions and folklore of many races and peoples. The reader cannot fail to be impressed by Dr. Velikovskys' extensive knowledge of such lore and by the wealth of references which he gives.'
He then told the story of the single catastrophes, 'awe-inspiring cosmic cataclysms.' There occurred collisions between major planets, which brought about the birth of planets. In the time of Moses, about the fifteenth century B.C., one of these comets nearly collided with the earth, incessant violent electrical discharges between the comet and planet took place.' Spencer Jones went on:
'This comet is supposed to have collided with Mars in the time of Joshua in the year 747 B.C. and, as a result of the collision, to have lost its tail and to have become transformed into the planet Venus ... Further catastrophes according to Dr.Velikovsky ensued. The new planet Venus collided with Mars; as a result the orbit of Venus became nearly circular but that of Venus was shifted nearer to the earth so that in the year 687 B.C. (March 23rd being the crucial date) Mars nearly collided with the earth.' 19From this point on, however, Spencer Jones launched into a heavy criticism of what he considered to be the unproven and unlikely aspects of Velikovsky's theses, especially the latter's proposed Venus-Mars scenarios. And here, perhaps, lies the crux of the matter and one of the main reasons behind much of the subsequent bitterness and misunderstanding that arose between the Establishment and those who supported Velikovsky and likely still do. Fifty years later it is still difficult to fully comprehend the uproar and the degree of outrage that attended Velikovsky's theories though it seems necessary to point out that the latter's presentation occurred before the establishment of Chaos Theory and the realization that the Solar System was not after all immutable. But even so what Velikovsky claimed was and still is highly heretical in terms of orthodox scientific views, and moreover, his assertions concerning changes in the orbits of Venus and Mars were likely too forthright on one hand and too inclusive on the other. Even now the situation continues to simmer and hard lines remain drawn, but that said, one cannot help but wonder how the matter might have proceeded had Velikovsky initially confined his theorizing to comets rather than attempting to explain matters directly in terms of radical shifts in the orbits of Earth's neighbouring planets. The latter represented difficult theses that were almost certain to generate controversy, whereas it is likely that few astronomers would have taken great exception to the notion of cometary intrusions per se, although they might well have required more direct proof that such momumental events had indeed taken place during historical times.
Thus one more apology for the over-reaction of the scientific community at the time? Not exactly, but rather the suggestion that because the matter became so volatile, one of the more important elements in Velikovsky's research -- the possibility of polar reversals -- was unfortunately and largely lost in the shuffle. Or better stated, perhaps as much as 90 percent of the unusual effects and "consequences" reported by Velikovsky could likely be explained by this particular occurrence, and this occurrence alone. Which is not to over-simplify an already contentious and complex matter. However, with respect to the suggested orbital shifts of Mars and Venus, suppose a rapid polar reversal of the type under discussion accidently occurred around the time Venus was observed rising in the east and Mars setting in the west. After the polar reversal, with no changes whatsover in rotational speeds and orbital positions, Mars could nevertheless appear to be rising in the "east" with Venus correspondingly setting in the "west," albeit in a somewhat disordered manner. In such circumstances -- especially following a period of global chaos and dimly perceived new order in the heavens -- Mars and/or Venus might well have been viewed as harbingers of disaster, while notions of conflict and "battle" between the two planets might also have arisen from the same event. Unfortunately, instead of exploring the polar reversal aspect in such contexts, the matter became lost during unnecessary battles fought over long-entrenched concepts and well-established views. As it now stands we remain little the wiser about the polar question, its fundamental importance notwithstanding. Velikovsky's emphasis on planetary shifts undoubtedly has its place in the subsequent misdirections and hostilities that followed, but even so the latter can hardly be excused in its entirety.
Returning to the initial reception of Worlds in Collision (an unfortunate, if not inflammatory title in retrospect), although the Astronomer Royal was negative about this aspect of the work, he nevertheless acknowledged the extent of the research and the effort expended. The nature of Velikovsky's historical material and its sources were clearly stated, but he was often chastised for utilizing myths, folk-lore and other material considered scientifically unverifiable; so much so, in fact, that it influenced the approach to his next work, Ages in Chaos (1952). But whether this material was myth, legend, or whatever, it was still a valuable and fascinating collection of global information not universally available before. Nor were there any reasons to exclude biblical sources in such a compendium. Indeed, as the alchemist Roger Bacon explains and cautions in: The Fourth Part of the Opus Maius: Mathematics in the Service of Theology:
(Page 180) .. scripture has many (p.181) puzzling passages about the heavens ... the very first chapter of Genesis presents all sorts of astronomical problems-witness not only the text itself, but its expositions of Basil, Ambrose, and Bede in their books entitled The Six Days. Again, there is the passage in Joshua [10.13] about the length of the day when the sun stood still, and, most important of all, how the sun went back ten degrees [lineis; II Kings 20.12] at the command of the prophet Isaiah; between these two passages there seems to be a contradiction. According to Jerome, Solomon says in the book of Ecclesiastes [1.5] that every day the sun returns to its starting-place in the; not a single scientist can make head or tail of this, for everybody knows that from the winter solstice to the summer the sun moves north roughly a degree a day, and the other way in the other half of the year. In Ecclesiasticus [1.3] we find the question of the height of the firmament; this, and the question in the same book of how the sun scorches the land at midday [Ecc. 43.3], are astronomically insoluble. The remarks of the blessed Job about the Hyades and Pleiades, about Arcturus and Orion, and about the "chambers of the south" [Job 9.9], present serious difficulty, especially since the blessed Jerome, commenting on Isaiah, maintains that Orion has 22 stars, of which the nine brightest are of the third magnitude, nine others of the fourth, and the other four of the fifth-and has no more to say. This can only be understood by reference to Book 8 of the Almagest, where six degrees of stellar magnitude are distinguished, and the stars of each degree are listed. There is a practically endless number of points in Scripture and the commentaries of the saints on it, matters which affect the science of the heavens and the judgements of astronomy; (183) a theologian must, then, have a good knowledge of the phenomena in the heavens, not just because treatises and commentaries are concerned with such questions, but for the sake of the text itself.Nevertheless, in one of the earliest criticisms of Worlds in Collision, Cecilia Payne-Gaposhkin (an astronomer at Harvard University) wrote scornfully:
The second astronomical root of theology, and especially of the sacred text, comes from its concern with the geography of the world, for the whole Bible is full of geographical passages, and nothing certain can be learned about the text unless we first study these passages ... ... Origen, called Adamantius, is said to have written about the text proper of Joshua, and a sort of commentary on chapter 18 [23. Migne, Patrologia Greca 12. 938 C,D. (Origen, tr. by Rufinus]. In this he speaks of the great number of places mentioned in the Scriptures, and among his praise of these places he admonishes us in these words: "Do not read all this with raised eyebrows, or regard it as a trifling bit of Scripture padded out with a lot of proper names. No; you may be certain that in these names mysteries are concealed too great for human speech to expound or human ears to hear."Now If our reverend scholars, our holy teachers, have labored so in these matters, (185) and have declared what mysteries they contain, we can be sure that it is imperative for us to use every device we can to understand the Holy Scriptures. But the very reason for the existence of astrology and astronomy is the imparting of rational and certain information about the regions of the universe, and in this regard these sciences are most necessary. [italics and emphases supplied. The full quotation is from the working translation (including notes in square brackets) Copyright (1996) by Herbert M.Howe Emeritus Professor of Classics, University of Wisconsin-Madison]
If the biblical story which Mr. Velikovsky seeks to establish is to be accepted at its face value, the rotation of earth must have been stopped within six hours. All bodies not attached to the surface of the earth (including the atmosphere and the ocean) would then have continued their motion, and consequently have flown off with a speed of 900 miles an hour at the latitude of Egypt.20Looking back on this this heavy-handed attack, it remains one of the more depressing incidents in a sorry and sordid tale, for who would be better qualified than an astronomer to see that the polar inversion hypothesis was at least a possible answer to the phenomenon in question. And once understood, who should have been able to take the matter further for the benefit of all? Not that Payne-Gaposchkin was the worst offender here, however, for far worse were the similar misconceptions and on-going activities of her fellow astronomer, Dr. Harlow Shapely, the then director of the Harvard Observatory (see Horace Kallen's Harlow Shapely Reconsidered for the latter's less than savoury role in the matter). A malaise of the times and the immovable opinions of staunch Newtonians? Perhaps, but as Lynn Rose points out in The Censorship of Velikovsky's Interdisciplinary Synthesis :
When Worlds in Collision was finally about to be published, Shapley wrote a threatening letter to Macmillan (on January 25, 1950) and reiterated "that if the earth could be stopped in such a short space of time it would overthrow all that Isaac Newton had done". The history of science will inevitably record, even if Velikovsky should somehow turn out to be mistaken, that Shapley and his colleagues made a snap decision about Velikovsky. That decision will be seen as based far less on evidence and argument than on various untenable prejudices.As for a viable alternative to drastic changes in Earth's axial rotation, one might have expected modern astronomers to have been more inventive, or at least less nihilistic. After all, it is not that difficult to envisage a situation where both appear to become stationary as the result of axial tilting alone (e.g., see Figure 2 below). Indeed, Biblical references such as those made by Origen in the above quoted passage (the Book of Joshua especially): the Sun and the Moon:
Joshua 10-12: "... Sun stand thou still upon Gibeon; and thou, Moon upon Aijalon." Joshua 10-13 "And the sun stood still, and the moon stayed, until the people had avenged themselves upon their enemies. Is not this written in the book of Jasher? So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day" (italics supplied)could be explained in general terms (particularly if the sun went down at "noon") by an observer situated between "Gibeon" and "Aijalon" (with the two locations on an approximate north-south line and "Gibeon" to the south), a full or near full moon, and a ninety-degree (or so) outward axial tilt. This would result in the southern polar axis pointing in the general direction of the Sun, the northern polar axis correspondingly pointing in the general direction of the full Moon and the almost total cancellation of the effects of diurnal axial rotation on the apparent motions of both major luminaries. Moreover, depending on the location of the observer and the exact degree of tilt, the Sun might might well appear to be "stationary" on or near the southern horizon. Whether it stayed that way for many hours ("So the sun stood still in the midst of heaven, and hasted not to go down about a whole day") is a different matter altogether. But even here there are sufficient references in Velikovsky's material to classify minor variations of the phenomenon according to location, i.e., continual twilight near, but north of the the equator and a continually visible sun further south, etc. Moreover, the puzzling reference in II Kings 20: "11. And Isaiah the prophet cried unto the Lord: and he brought the shadow ten degrees backward, by which it had gone down in the dial of Ahaz" also requires more detailed analysis - analysis that may or may not include the unexplained fact that a 10 degree variance in the position of the Vernal Equinox also occurs in Babylonian astronomy of the Seleucid Era (Neugebauer, Astronomical Cuneiform Texts, Lund Humphreys, London 1995:187).
The above represent two examples of difficult astronomical references in the Bible with the first understandable in specific terms that require no changes whatsoever in axial rotation. Those who wish to investigate the matter further (e.g., by examining the Biblical references quoted above by Roger Bacon) may wish to refer to the related writings of Donald W. Patten. Either way, there seems little doubt that this particular topic is both complex and difficult, even without suggestions of later modification (wilful or accidental) that may attend the matter.
Returning to the initial reception of Words in Collision, in retrospect, it makes little sense to completely ignore the many references to east-west and north-south reversals painstakingly documented by Velikovsky. Nor does it make much more sense to fasten onto the least likely scenario and launch a heavy attack against it without considering other alternatives. A selection from Velikovsky's historical compendium is included here for those with open minds. Judge it as you wish; ignore it if you can, but be aware that by being unwilling to address this material Velikovsky's earlier critics also failed to comprehend its significance and in doing so labelled themselves for posterity.
NORTH TO SOUTH, EAST TO WEST
The reversal or the slowing of the rotation of Earth were major points of criticism (if not outright ridicule) as seen above, but like it or not, many of the historical references collated in Worlds in Collisiondid indeed appear to indicate that sunrise and sunrise had reversed in some way or another. In fact, Velikovsky introduced this topic in Chapter Five with the following statement and rhetorical question:
Our planet rotates from west to east. Has it always done so? In this rotation from west to east, the sun is seen to rise in the east and set in the west. Was east the primeval and only place of sunrise? There is testimony from all parts of the world that the side which is now turning toward the evening once faced the morning.21There were indeed, it seems, numerous references to reversals of sunrise and sunset from various regions and cultures; the following six examples selected from Velikovsky's compendium serve to illustrate the point as well as the problem:
In the Syrian city Ugarit (Ras Shamra) was found a poem dedicated to the planet-goddess Anat, who 'massacred the population of the Levant,' and who 'exchanged the two dawns and the positions of the stars.'22
In Tractate Sanhedrin of the Talmud it is said: ' Seven days before the deluge, the Holy One changed the primeval order and the sun rose in the west and set in the east.' 23
Hai Gaon, the rabbinical authority who flourished between 939 and 1038, in his Responses refers to cosmic changes in which the sun rose in the west and set in the east.24
Caius Julius Solinus, a Latin author of the third century of the present era, wrote of the people living on the southern borders of Egypt: 'The inhabitants of this country say that they have it from their ancestors that the sun now sets where it formerly rose.' 25
[Herodotus] ' Four times in this period (so they told me) the sun rose contrary to his wont: twice he rose where he now sets, and twice he set where he now rises.' 26
Pomponius Mela, a Latin author of the first century wrote: 'The Egyptians pride themselves on being the most ancient people in the world. In their authentic annals...one may read that since they have been in existence, the course of the stars has changed direction four times, and the sun has set twice in the part of the sky where it rises today.'27Indirect or not, these statements seem to refer to the same phenomenon, although there are intriguing differences, especially between the last three. The first Egyptian account speaks vaguely of location, the second mentions two reversals, albeit somewhat oddly, as does the last, which also mentions the "sky" and includes additional changes to the "course of the stars." Significantly, sunset and sunrise in the very last example are equated with the celestial sphere; the terms "east" and "west" are in fact absent in all three. But they are obviously implicit, are they not? Perhaps, but not necessarily. This issue, and the variance between the three statements emphasizes that conventional east and west and that applied in astronomical contexts requires careful clarification, as Velikovsky noted: 28
The texts found in the pyramids say that the luminary 'ceased to live in the occident, and shines, a new one, in the orient.' After the reversal of direction, whenever it may have occurred, the words ' west ' and ' east ' were no longer synonyms, and it is necessary to clarify references by adding: ' the west which is at the sun-setting.' It was not mere tautology, as the translator of this text thought.The difference between conventional applications and what may be called here the "celestial" East and West, are in simplest terms, that the former takes place with respect to local terrain and geographical cardinal points. The celestial East and West, however, is primarily a function of Earth's annual orbital and daily rotational motions, both of which take place from West to East. Thus Earth moves approximately one degree per day Eastwards in its orbit while completing a rotation on its axis from West to East. This means that the celestial sphere, the stars and constellations appear to move approximately one degree per day in the opposite direction (Westwards) in addition to rising in the East and setting in the West on a daily rotational basis. The net results of earth's diurnal and annual motions are that the constellations and stars rise approximately 4 minutes earlier each day, and in general terms, successive 30-degree regions proceed from East to West during successive months until all twelve signs of the zodiac have risen and set during the year. In general terms again, the stars and constellations rise in the east after sunset and set in the west before sunrise. But sunrise and sunset can occur with respect to more than one point of reference. Firstly the sun rises in the east and sets in the west with respect to local terrain, i e., the conventional understanding; but sunrise can also take place when the sun is in a specific location with respect to the stellar reference frame and/or its opposite. Thirdly, sunrise can additionally be considered to take place when the location of the local observer is at the point furthest East in the orbit (in effect the leading point of the orbit), with sunset in the West corresponding to the position of the observer at the orbital point which is furthest West and the trailing point in the orbit.
Significantly, it is the
celestial East and West which appears to predominate
in Velikovsky's historical material, and if (for whatever reason) a
of the geographic poles did take place, then a reversal of sunrise and
sunset would be one of the automatic consequences. It may not be
obvious, but once earth's axis tilts inwards towards the sun (for
and the angle of tilt passes beyond ninety degrees, the direction of
daily axial rotation is no longer the same as that of the orbital
In fact, a complete polar reversal causes the direction of axial motion
to completely oppose the orbital motion. There need not
any actual change in the eastward orbital motion itself, or
any departure from the normal daily axial rotation, irrespective of the
direction of the reversal itself (north to south, or south to north).
all such reversals would still cause radical directional and temporal
many of which do in fact correspond to the reports of
anomalies gathered by Velikovsky.
But could the geographic poles have actually reversed in the historical past? It is not a pleasant thought; in fact it is almost unthinkable. But then again, there is small comfort to be gained from Plato's reference to this kind of event provided earlier and the following historical accounts discussed in this explicit context by Velikovsky:
The Magical Papyrus Harris speaks of a cosmic upheaval of fire and water when: ' the south becomes north, and the earth turns over.' 29
In the Papyrus Ipuwer it is similarly stated that 'the land turns round [over] as does a potter's wheel,' and 'Earth turns upside down.' 30
"In the Ermitage Papyrus [Leningrad, 1116b recto] also, reference is made to a catastrophe that turned the 'land upside down; happens that which never (yet) had happened.' It is assumed at that time- in the second millennium-people were not aware of the daily rotation of the earth, and believed that the firmament with its luminaries turned around earth; therefore the expression, 'the earth turned over,' does not refer to the daily rotation of the globe. Nor do these descriptions in the papyri of Leiden and Leningrad leave room for figurative explanation of the sentence, especially if we consider the text of the Papyrus Harris-the turning over of earth is accompanied by the interchange of the south and north poles. [italics and emphases supplied] 31
The Eskimos of Greenland told missionaries that in an ancient time the earth turned over and the people who lived then became antipodes.32
According to the Lapland cosmogonic story....the angry God spoke, 'I shall reverse the world .....(Jubmel) with one strong upheaval, made the earth-lands all turn over.' 33
"The tradition of the Cashina, the aborigines of western Brazil, is narrated as follows; ' the heavens flashed and .... Then .... Heaven and earth changed places.' 34 [emphasis supplied]The six statements from Worlds in Collision represent a small percentage from Velikovsky's historical compendium and admittedly, the last three are essentially heresay. But they are stark statements nonetheless, and if they do not mean what they state, what do they mean? Moreover, who would be better equipped than the hardy inhabitants of the polar regions to recognize a change of this nature, given their intimate acquaintance with the land of the midnight sun and the long days of the midday night?
In the tomb of Senmut, the architect of Queen Hatshepsut, a panel on the ceiling shows the celestial sphere with ' a reversed orientation ' of the southern sky. The end of the Middle Kingdom antedated the time of Queen Hatshepsut by several centuries. The astronomical ceiling presenting a reversed orientation must have been a venerated chart, made obsolete a number of centuries earlier. ' A characteristic feature of the Senmut ceiling is the astronomically objectionable orientation of the southern panel,' The center of this panel is occupied by the Orion-Sirius group, in which Orion appears west of Sirius instead of east. ' The orientating of the southern panel is such that a person in the tomb looking at it has to lift his head and face north, not south.' ' With the reversed orientation of the south panel, Orion, the most conspicuous constellation of the southern sky, appeared to be moving eastward, i.e., in the wrong direction ' '35To explain this, Velikovsky offered the following:
The real meaning of ' the irrational orientation of the southern panel ' and the 'reversed position of Orion ' appears to be this: the southern panel shows the sky of Egypt as it was before the celestial sphere interchanged north and south, east and west. The northern panel shows the sky of Egypt as it was on some night of the year in the time of Senmut.36and after supporting this viewpoint with related examples from other regions and cultures, he finally concluded:
The reversal of east and west, if combined with the reversal of north and south, would turn the constellations of the north into constellations of the south, and show them in reversed order, as in the chart of the southern sky on the ceiling of Senmut's tomb. The stars of the north would become the stars of the south; this is what seems to be described by the Mexicans as the 'driving away of the four hundred southern stars.' 37 [emphasis supplied]but strictly speaking, what he perhaps should have said was simply this:
The [apparent] reversal of east and west [resulting from] the reversal of north and south would turn the constellations of the north into constellations of the south, and show them in reversed order, as in the chart of the southern sky on the ceiling of Senmut's tomb, etc., [emphasis and changes supplied]The latter is a subtle difference which may or may not be considered important, but either way, given his apparent early awareness of the polar reversal hypothesis it is difficult to understand why Velikovsky did not take the premise further, or remain with it in its entirety. If he had done so, he would have at least been able to avoid criticisms concerning suggested changes to the rotation of Earth. Even though he clearly realized at an early date that polar reversals could provide an explanation for many of the reported celestial anomalies, he did not apply it to its fullest extent at the end. But perhaps he also realized that the polar reversal hypothesis was subject to problems posed by modern luni-solar alignments implicit in astronomical monuments such as Stonehenge, whose antiquity pre-dated his projected times for changes to the solar system. Or perhaps it was not considered as important as these latter events, or not fully differentiated as such. And possibly, it might have been that to detail the effects of a polar reversal it would be necessary to consider the situation from the viewpoint of residents of the northern hemisphere who experienced the reversal only to find themselves inexplicably facing an unfamiliar and chaotic southern celestial sphere. Such changes are very difficult to visualize, especially from an inverted viewpoint in another hemisphere. But how would the constellation of Orion and the star Sirius have appeared to such an observer?
Figure 1. Directional Norms and Polar Reversals
'The calendar had to be adjusted anew. The astronomical values of the year and the day could not be the same before and after an upheaval in which, as the quoted Papyrus Anastasi IV says, the months were reversed and the ' hours disordered.' 38
'The breath of heaven is out of harmony ... The four seasons do not observe their proper times,' we read in the Texts of Taoism. In the historical memoirs of SE-Ma Ts'ien, as in the annuals of the Shu King which we have already quoted, it is said that Emperor Yahou sent astronomers to the Valley of Obscurity and the Sombre Residence to observe the new movements of the sun and the moon and the zyzygies or the orbital points of the conjunctions, also 'to investigate and to inform the people of the order of the seasons.' It is also said that Yahou introduced a calendar reform: he brought the seasons into accord with the observations; he did the same with the months; and he 'corrected the days.' 39
'Thereupon Yaou [Yahou] commanded Hi and Ho, in reverent accordance with the wide heavens, to calculate and delineate the movements and the appearances of the sun, the moon, the stars, and the zodiacal spaces; and to deliver respectfully the seasons to the people.' 40Returning to Figure 1b, if it is still hard for us to comprehend what has actually taken place from a simplified diagram, imagine how difficult it would have been to analyze and document the event itself, and how problematic it would be to pass it on to future generations. Not only that, we have only discussed what might constitute one half of the matter and a return to the original polarity could well be required to complete the full cycle.
SYMMETRY AND THE
AXIS OF EARTH
Because of the above we might now perhaps place greater emphasis on the famous Egyptian statement concerning apparent reversals of sunrise and sunset reported by Herodotus, i.e.,
"Four times in this period ...the sun rose contrary to his wont: twice he rose where he now sets, and twice he set where he now rises,"28 [emphasis supplied]and consider that the Egyptians might indeed be speaking of what they knew and what they understood. The text does not say that the sun rose over here on one occasion, rose somewhere else another time, and again at a different location the next, it implies something more precise, namely that there was symmetrical return to the original positions in each instance. In other words, the statement might mean exactly what it says. Which is firstly, that the phenomenon is periodic. And secondly, since sunrise and sunset apparently return to their original positions, it is possible that the phenomena is also both bi-polar and symmetrical. Or more simply stated, that the normal and inverted positions of Earth's axis in this context may represent opposite stable states. This might on the face of it appear highly unlikely, but it may depend ultimately on both the causative mechanism and the source itself. When this matter was first broached by Velikovsky in 1950 Chaos Theory was virtually unknown and Velikovsky was roundly criticized, if not ridiculed, for suggesting that major changes may have taken place in the Solar System during historical times. This was largely the result of the prevailing belief that the System was basically immutable. However, the advent of Chaos Theory since that time has proved that the certitude provided by Newtonian Mechanics is more a comforting illusion than an adequate description of the complexities of orbital motion. Also, since Velikovsky's initial trespasses in the hallowed halls of science further aspects have come to light. In particular, Henry H. Bauer's comprehensive analysisBeyond Velikovsky (1984) cites the following under "Scholarly Support" for the latter's previously derided views concerning the matter at hand:
While the journals of science remain silent about Velikovsky, a few respectably established scientists have attempted evaluations of what implications accepted physical laws might have for the plausibility of Velikovsky's postulated events. In 1950, and for a few years thereafter, many astronomers in particular had called those events impossible: contrary to the laws of Newton and energy conservation, among others. Later, however, Velikovskians derived comfort from statements by professional scientists that those events are by no means impossible. Irving Michelson, of the Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Aerospace Engineering at the Illinois Institute of Technology, discussed classical mechanics and possible electro-magnetic effects [117, 248-249], concluding that Velikovsky's contentions 'are certainly not at variance with classical mechanics.' Further, the energy required to reverse the earth's axis (in relation to the stars) 'happens to correspond closely to modern estimates of the energy of a single moderately strong geomagnetic storm ... Is it possible that Herodotus' baffling allusions and the 'Earth turned upside down,' as reported in Papyrus Ipuwer also, was triggered by a geomagnetic storm?' 41There can be little doubt that by 1950 Velikovsky was already aware of the possible relationship between Polar and East-West reversals and all the attendant implications, e.g., at the close of Worlds in Collision he stated in a defensive summary:
The physical effects of retardation or reversal of the earth in its diurnal rotation are differently evaluated by various scientists. Some express the opinion that a total destruction of the earth and a volatilization of its entire mass would follow such slowing down or stasis. They concede, however, that destruction of such dimensions would not occur if the earth continued to rotate and only its axis were tilted out of position. This could be caused by the earth's passing through a strong magnetic field at an angle to the earth's magnetic axis. A rotating steel top, when tilted by a magnet, continues to rotate. Theoretically, the terrestial axis could be tilted for a certain length of time, and at any angle, and also in such a fashion that it would lie in the plane of the ecliptic. In that case, one of the two hemispheres-the northern or the southern-would remain in prolonged day, the other in prolonged night. The tilting of the axis could produce the visual effect of a retrogressing or arrested sun; a greater tilting, a multiple day or night; and in the case of still greater tilting, a reversal of poles with east and west exchanging places; all this without a substantial disruption in the mechanical momentum or rotation or revolution of earth.' 42Expanding on the above, one might ask when and where it was recorded that the sun "stood still," and/or "went down at noon," and why records mostly from the northern hemisphere (Europe, Scandinavia, etc.) contain references to darkness and the sun being absent for days; why others from latitudes nearer the equator reported light but no point source; why those somewhat closer to the equator reported the sun visible but low on the horizon, (Andaman Islands) and finally, why it was recorded further south (Peru, China, etc.) that the sun did not set for days but apparently remained "motionless." It is unlikely that the sun really went down at noon, or that it stood still per se. These apparent phenomena are more easily understood to be the result of the tilting of the earth's axis, as Velikovsky and others were clearly aware. Moreover, to explain this effect it can be hypothesized from the available reports that Earth's axis tilted directly towards the sun, and that it was the Southern polar regions that tilted inwards while the Northern polar regions simultaneously tilted outwards. Based on the same sources, it also becomes possible to explain the "standing still" phenomena in terms of the axis of rotation remaining pointed towards the sun for an interval of time within the range of 3 to 15 days before carrying right over to complete the reversal. From this framework it is then possible to consider the latter as the intermediate or Phase II stage of a three-stage process with Phases I and III comprising the commencement and the completion of the event as shown below in Figure 2. Here one can see that although Earth's orbital motion around the Sun remains from West to East and the rotation about Earth's axis remain entirely unchanged, once the event passes the ninety degree point (Phase II) the direction of axial rotation naturally opposes the direction of orbital motion, which in turn gives rise to the apparent changes in time and direction found in many of the ancient descriptions.
The aborigines of British North Borneo, even today, declare that the sky was originally low, and that six suns perished, and at present the world is illuminated by the seventh sun.43
In the tale of the southern Ute Indians, the cottontail is the animal that is connected with the disruption of the movement of the sun." ..."There is one instance more in the Indian story of the sun being impeded on its path and the ensuing world conflagation. Before the catastrophe, 'the sun used to go round close to the ground.' the purpose of the attack on the sun was to make 'the sun shine a little longer: the days were too short.' After the catastrophe 'the days became longer'. 44
In the so-called Manuscript Quiche it is also narrated that there was 'little light on the surface of the earth .. the faces of the sun and the moon were covered with clouds.' 45
Similarly the Mayan legend tells that 'it was not known from where the new sun would appear.' 'They looked in al directions, but they were unable to say where the sun would rise. Some thought it might take place in the north and their glances were turned in that direction. Others thought it would be in the south. Actually, their guess included all directions because dawn shone all around. Some, however, fixed their attention of the orient, and maintained that the sun would come from there. It was their opinion that proved to be correct. 46
Sahagun, the Spanish savant who came to America a generation after Columbus and gathered the traditions of the aborigines, wrote that at the time of one cosmic catastrophe the sun rose only a little way over the horizon and remained there without moving; the moon also stood still 47
CHINA: At the time of the miracle is said to have happened that the sun during a span of ten days did not set, the forests were ignited, and a multitude of abominable vermin was brought forth." "In the lifetime of Yao [Yahou] the sun did not set for full ten days and the entire land was flooded.48
In the Ermitage Papyrus in Leningrad (previously mentioned) there are lamentations about a terrible catastrophe, when heaven and earth turned upside down ("I show thee the land upside down: it happed that which never had happened'). After this catastrophe, darkness covered the earth: 'The is veiled and shines not in the sight of men. None can live when the sun is veiled by clouds. ..None knoweth that midday is there; the shadow is not discerned .. Not dazzled is the sight when he [the sun] is beheld; he is in the sky like the moon.' 49
Fig. 3. Megalithic Spirals: Left: Newgrange; Center: Scottish tetrahedral sphere; Right: Tarxian, Malta
The text then reads:
Draw it back!
Open the two shutters to heaven.
Open for Unas,
Over the flame, beneath the iknt.
Of the gods.
Further problems present themselves. the words for ' over ' and ' beneath ' are formal, but employed as such do not make sense, and the translators try different solutions....
' Iknt ' is another difficult word. In other contexts it signifies ' ladling or scooping out ', in this case by the Neters, or ' gods '. The actual meaning follows upon the understanding of the consequences of a suspension of Ba-bi's power, and the subsequent opening of the two shutters of heaven.
The short phrase describes a double action: a flame or fire that is rising and being drawn upward (toward heaven) by the gods. The flame or ' spirit ', the spiritual fire, or ' breath of fire ' drawn heavenwards by the gods.
'Seben' (sbn.t.) presents the next problem. Seben is variously Horus ' lets slips '. Horus is allowed ' to slide or slip through ' and Horus ' stumbles '. None of these solutions is satisfactory, yet in this case, the meaning of the word practically imposes itself. The determinative for sbn.t (characteristically omitted in the Unas text but always understood as implicit) is a little river fish whose peculiarity it is to swim upside down. It is this position that is always shown*
*The reverse of seben, nebes, is the Christ-thorn or zizyphus tree, whose branches incline to the ground. ' The zizyphus tree bends its face to you ' (Pys Text 808, R.O. Falkner). Thus, seben is a fish that turns its face to the sky, nebes a tree that bends its head to the ground.53 [emphases supplied]
With respect to the inversion of the axis of Earth, if two basically stable states did exist, and there was not any appreciable difference with respect to luni-solar alignments between successive pairs of polar reversals, this would indeed be remarkable. The possibility that there might be minor changes, however, suggests that precise information may be adducable from any obvious adjustments made to the megalithic structures, which again might best be detected at the solstices. Lastly, even slight polar shifts and minor deviations between the two states would play havoc with precession and its use as a precise tool to date astronomical monuments beyond the time of the last event, which at present is not even known.
The ancients recorded that the fixed stars have a motion by which they sometimes proceed in the direction of the signs and at other times retrogress in the opposite direction; but they do not complete the circle of the zodiac with (this) motion. Of old, these motions were called accession and recession. Recent scholars have been distressed by this (incomplete motion) and it still remains in doubt.
It may be remarked here
that the feasibility of symmetrical polar shifts
must necessarily depend on our understanding of both the cause and the
mechanism involved, assuming that either can be ascertained. As for the
likelihood of symmetrical reversals, one can only suggest at this stage
of the inquiry that we ourselves understand and utilize magnetic fields
to provide both on-off and stable-state switching in a variety of
applications. It therefore remains to be seen how and why these
might apply in the present context. It may also be useful to re-examine
whatever works presently exist that deal with cyclic behavior of the
including the recent work of Maurice
Cotterell (1995) on this very subject. For what it is worth, while
no changes to the stability of Earth are desirable, an ordered reversal
of the geographical poles with predictable deviation and eventual
to normalcy might still be much preferred to chaotic and radical
to the axial rotation and/or the orbital motion.
+ 03m 56.555368s.Modern
24h + 03m 56.544686s Ancient Hindu
24h + 03m 56.533333s Ancient Babylonian
Of the two sources the Babylonian is by far the most complex. The Hindu constant originates from a long-term mean-value period relationship while the latter occurs in an astronomical cuneiform text that gives procedures for determining the motions of the Sun and the Moon. The Hindu material in effect provides the key, and it is thanks to James Q.Jacobs who recognized its unusual nature and then made it available to all via the Internet that this association can be made. The shifts in both the Hindu and the Babylonian material differ from the modern constant by less than one tenth of a second. But even so, it is necessary to acknowledge that there is an alternative interpretation that may be applied to the first set of data. However, the Babylonian value is a parameter utilized in a procedure text that determines the amount of change day by day and month by month while also furnishing an explanation for hitherto unaccounted luni-solar parameters. Moreover, the text in question also incorporates the equation of time and unexplained references to corrections for both the lunar and solar velocities. It may also be noted that the position of the vernal equinox is unusual in this same context - instead of occurring at the first point of Aries it occurs at the eighth and tenth points respectively according to which of the two major Babylonian systems is under consideration. As for the remaining Babylonian astronomical texts, they are quite limited and conventional viewpoints notwithstanding, they appear to be poorly understood, at least in conceptual terms. Here as elsewhere much work remains to be done; but one thing appears certain, this can only result in a drastic upward revision of what is already known. Because of their mathematical nature the two sets of data are discussed in separate appendices with the Hindu relationship providing the necessary lead-in to the more extensive Babylonian material. The treatment in Appendix B is somewhat foreshortened and readers should be aware that there is a great deal more that can and should be said about its place in the general scheme of things.
THE MEGALITHIC MONUMENTS
Although most people these days have heard of the major megalithic sites at Stonehenge, Avebury and Carnac perhaps, many would not be aware that there are literally thousands of such monuments in Britain and France alone. Most people would also have some notion of the size of the stonework employed at Stonehenge, but few would realize the extent of the work carried out at many of the remoter locations. Nor would they be obliged to come to terms with the enigmas posed by the necessary organization, planning and engineering side of such projects. The materials employed for the task are invariably huge massive blocks of stone that are only meaningfully discussed in terms of meters and tonnes, and they are in addition often worked objects positioned critically (and solidly) for distinct purposes even in such locations as the Outer Hebrides and the Orkneys. To get some idea of the size and the variation it is an enlightening exercise to access Robert Pollock's Stones of Wonder Site and step through the 77 Scottish megalithic sites contained therein, follow the same procedure with Andy Burnham's material, examine Tim O'Brien's treatment of Newgrange in Ireland (replete with solar symbol), and consider Sigurd Towrie's timeline for the Orkneys.
More recently, the analysis of the astronomical alignments of the megalithic sites in Britain has seen less concentration on Stonehenge itself following Gerald Hawkin's Stonehenge Decoded (1964).56 But if the latter's use of 56 holes for eclipse predictions involves a triple 18.61 year luni-solar cycle, then apart from the complex astronomical side of the matter, without writing skills the observers of Stonehenge even in the earlier periods must have been prodigious mental athletes as well as being remarkably long-lived, for who would be around after some 56 years to observe or verify the results? There is, of course, the oral tradition, but that in its own way inevitably raises questions concerning continuity and social organization, especially when it is realized that Stonehenge underwent modifications over an interval of almost a thousand years. Moreover, the above remarks are not to say that Hawkins was at all incorrect, any more than the calendaric approach proposed by Fred Hoyle 55 was necessarily in error, but to suggest that works such as these by modern astronomers should have generated a wider search for understanding that necessarily extended beyond the limited shores of the United Kingdom.
From this viewpoint the present work at least provides a definite focus, perhaps one that has long been lacking. However, in keeping with the complexity of the phenomenon and the general thrust of the argument presented here the megalithic monuments may have a three-fold purpose intended to provide education (mathematics, geometry and astronomy), to point to the major luminaries and delineate their periodic movements, and lastly to provide precise information concerning the phenomenon that motivated their construction. In this sense they may proceed from the simple to the intermediate and then on to the more complex, and thus the more accurate constructions determined by Alexander Thom, with Stonehenge, Avebury, Brodgar and Stanton Drew perhaps providing finer details. As for the rest, there is also the obvious fact that there are a number of different types of sites to contend with, i.e., (a) Standing Stones, (b) Stone Circles and (c) Chambered Cairns as classified by Robert Pollack. Yet in the Scottish context in particular there are additional points that require investigation from our present viewpoint, namely whether it is purely incidental or a function of the passage of time that so many of the tall standing stones are tilted slightly off the vertical. And perhaps in the same vein, whether it is again coincidental that so many astronomical alignments for these Scottish Sites are within a degree or two of plus or minus 23.5 degrees. Then there are the finished and unfinished sides of the stones themselves, angled tops on others and whether the constructors managed to leave any additional clues as to the preferred or exact viewing angles at each particular location. Finally, there is also a broader view that might extend to specific regions, with Brittany (the Carnac complex especially), Ireland, Scotland, England and Wales each possessing their own particular niche or part of the puzzle.
There undoubtedly remain numerous threads to be gathered up, many ancient paths to be retraced and much to be checked and tested. As for continuing research concentrating on ancient astronomical sites, there is the growing interest evidenced by the Center for Archaeoastronomy in the United States, Robert Pollock's Stones of Wonder from New Zealand, the work of Clive Ruggles, Andy Burnham's Megalithic Mysteries, (both from Britain), the Stones of England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales and France (from Italy) and the MEgALithiA series to list just a few of the available resources on the Internet. Moreover, there are also intriguing geographical aspects of the matter that might be investigated further by way of James.Q.Jacobs' Archaeogeodesy page.
Those who do not favor the Mediterranean out-migration hypothesis might consider the following offering from the ever-obscure yet informative H.P.Blavatsky, who with no particular orientation towards the Egyptians noted in The Secret Doctrine (Vol.2, p.750) that:
Bunsen allowed the great Pyramid an antiquity of 20,000 years. More modern archaeologists will not give it more than 5,000, or at the utmost 6,000 years; and generously concede to Thebes with its hundred gates, 7,000 years from the date of its foundation. And yet there are records which show Egyptian priests -- Initiates -- journeying in a North-Westerly direction, by land, via what became later the Straits of Gibraltar; turning North and travelling through the future Phoenician settlements of Southern Gaul; then still further North, until reaching Carnac (Morbihan) they turned to the West again and arrived, still travelling by land, on the North-Western promontory of the New Continent.The land route and last statement notwithstanding, travelling West and then North by boat from Carnac would undoubtedly bring the voyagers to Western England, Ireland and Wales. As for the purpose of the journey, Mme Blavatsky further asserted that records indicate that the travellers moved from:
one land to the other for the purpose of supervising the building of menhirs and dolmens, of colossal Zodiacs in stone, and places of sepulchre to serve as receptables for the ashes of generations to come.Lastly, the same obscure source also provides further links between the symbolism of Ancient Egypt and the phenomenon under consideration - the polar inversion, e.g., we find the following discussions concerning origins and symbolism in this explicit context:
... the many meanings in every symbol, which, unless interpreted according to the esoteric methods, generally lead to an inextricable confusion. Does the Western Kabalist -- generally an opponent of the Eastern Occultist -- require a proof? Let him open Eliphas Levi's Histoire de la Magic, p.53, and carefully examine his ' Grand Symbole Kabalistique ' of the Zohar. He will find, on the engraving given, a white man standing erect and a black woman upside down, i.e., standing on her head, her legs passing under the extended arms of the male figure, and protruding behind his shoulders, while their hands join at an angle on each side. Eliphas Levi makes of it, God and Nature; or God, ' light,' mirrored inversely in ' Nature and Matter,' darkness. Kabalistically and symbolically he is right; but only so far as emblematical cosmogony goes. Nor has he invented the symbol any more than the Kabalists have: the two figures in white and black stone have existed in the temples of Egypt from time immemorial -- agreeably to tradition; and historically -- ever since the day of King Cambyses, who personally saw them. Therefore the symbol must have been in existence since nearly 2,500 years ago. This, at the very least, for that Persian sovereign, who was a son of Cyrus the Great, succeeded his father in the year 529 B.C. These figures were the two Kabiri personifying the opposite poles. Herodotus (Thalia, No. 77) tells posterity that when Cambyses entered the temple of the Kabirim, he went into an inextinguishable fit of laughter, on perceiving what he thought a man erect and a woman standing on the top of her head before him. These were the poles, however, whose symbol was intended to commemorate ' the passing of the original North Pole of the Earth to the South Pole of the Heaven,' as perceived by Mackey. But they represented also the poles inverted, in consequence of the great inclination of the axis, bringing each time as a result the displacement of the Oceans, the submersion of the polar lands, and the consequent upheaval of new continents in the equatorial regions, and vice versa. [The Secret Doctrine, Vol.2, p.360]
That the whole region of what is now Egypt and the deserts was once upon a time covered with the sea, was known firstly through Herodotus, Strabo, Pliny, and all the Greeks; and, secondly, through geology. Abyssinia was once upon a time an island; and the Delta was the first country occupied by the pioneer emigrants who came with their gods from the North-east.Here as in many places throughout this investigation we find snippets of information that are possibly correct, likely distorted and degraded by time, but detailed to the point that they can hardly be dismissed outright. Moreover, in terms of the luni-solar component and bi-polar inversions, we have the hypothesis, we have an abundance of sites, and as discussed in detail in Appendix B, we also have some of the instructions and details in the Babylonian context, the complex relationship between Egypt and Mesopotamia notwithstanding. Nor can the impetus that provided the theory and motivation of Astrology be dismissed in this and more general contexts; see, for example, the work of Patrice Guinard at CURA.
When was it? History is silent upon the subject. Fortunately we have the Dendera Zodiac, the planisphere on the ceiling of one of the oldest Egyptian temples, which records the fact. This Zodiac, with its mysterious three Virgos between the Lion and Libra, has found its OEdipus, who understood the riddle of these signs, and justified the truthfulness of those priests who told Herodotus that: -- (a) The poles of the Earth and the Ecliptic had formerly coincided; and (b) That even since their first Zodiacal records were commenced, the Poles have been three times within the plane of the Ecliptic, as the Initiates taught. [The Secret Doctrine, Vol. 2, p.368].
THE GOLDEN VESSELS OF THE EGYPTIANS
A fleet of 5000-year old royal ships has been found buried eight miles from the Nile. American and Egyptian archaeologists discovered the 12 large wooden boats at Abydos ... Experts said the boats- which are 50 to 60 feet long - are about 5000 years old, making them Egypt's earliest royal ships and among the earliest boats found anywhere ...The experts say the ships, discovered in September, were probably meant for burial so the souls of the pharaohs could be transported on them. 'We never expected to find such a fleet, especially so far from the Nile,' said Davis O'Connor, the expedition leader and curator of the Egyptian Section of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania....
... the University of Pennsylvania archaeologists had, for legitimate security reasons reburied the 12 mysterious boats they had stumbled on in 1991. They had hoped to return in 1992 to continue the excavations, but there had been various hitches and, in 1993, the dig was still being postponed.Both dates takes us back before the time of the Megalithic monuments in Britain, but while these 12 buried Egyptian ships provide a further enigma, they also suggest something else - that they may have been deservedly and rightly preserved for posterity as the true "Golden Vessels of the Egyptians" - perhaps even those that sailed to the cold northern seas of Europe and further afield as pathfinders during the darkest hours when danger, uncertainty and chaos predominated.
In the course of my research O'Connor had sent me the official report of the 1991 season, mentioning in passing that some of the boats might have been as much as 72 feet in length. He also noted that the boat-shaped brick graves in which they were enclosed, which would have risen well above the level of the surrounding desert in early dynastic times, must have produced quite an extraordinary effect when they were new ..
....' Each grave had originally been thickly coated with mud plaster and whitewash so the impression would have been twelve (or more) huge 'boats' moored out in the desert gleaming in the Egyptian sun. The notion of their being moored was taken so seriously that an irregular shaped small boulder was found placed near the 'prow' or 'stern' of several boat graves. These boulders could not have been there naturally or by accident; their placement seems deliberate, not random. We can think of them as 'anchors' intended to help 'moor' the boats.'
....Like the 140-foot ocean-going vessel found buried beside the Great Pyramid at Giza (see Chapter Thirty-Three), one thing was immediately clear about the Abydos boats - they were of an advanced design capable of riding out the most powerful waves and the worst weather of the open seas. According to Cheryl Haldane, a nautical archaeologist at Texas A-and-M University, they showed 'a high degree of technology combined with grace.' Exactly as was the case with the Pyramid boat, therefore (but a least 500 years earlier) the Abydos fleet seemed to indicate that people able to draw upon the accumulated experiences of a long tradition of seafaring had been present in Egypt from the very beginning of its 3000 year history. moreover, I knew that the earliest wall paintings found in the Nile Valley, dating back perhaps as much as 1500 years before the burial of the Abydos fleet (around 4500 BC) showed the same long, sleek, high-prowed vessels in action.56
Firstly, from the bi-polar inversion viewpoint, it is possible that there is either nothing or another stone ball behind the sliding stone "door" at the top of the mysterious passage leading from the Queen's Chamber in the Great Pyramid,57and as a corollary, that other such passages might possibly exist for the same or similar purposes. Such applications being merely additional elements and indicators in the greater scheme of things.
Secondly, in keeping with a much repeated observation that a massive amount of redundancy may have been factored into the scheme to disseminate useful information, it might be productive to examine any and all researches that naturally gravitated towards the investigation of the mathematical elements inherent in the construction of the Pyramids, such as Graham Oaten's Foundation Metrology, Karl Munc's Pyramid Matrix, Alphonso Rubino's The Secret Science of ancient Egypt, Stephen I.Goulet's The LIX Grid, the continuation of Lehel Répits work by Jerry Törnström in Sweden, New Perspectives on the Great Pyramid by Bernard I. Pietsch, the related research of Jim Branson, Lutz Hoppner (ZERPHI) and also that of Karl-Heinze and Uwe Homann (The Geometry and Mathematics of the Great Pyramid) to mention a few prime examples.
Thirdly, perhaps the relevant Egyptian textual material might be reexamined from the bi-polar viewpoint, with the same considerations applied to the obvious duality and symmetry carefully integrated into the construction of the Temple of Luxor, especially as treated by Schwaller de Lubricz and John Anthony West.Lastly, the initial assessment reached here is that there may have been large-scale disruptions on the surface of Earth in historical time, as Velikovsky suggested almost half a century ago. It is also hypothesized that one event in particular, a symmetrical bi-polar inversion (for whatever reason) may have been one of them. To what extent the event was truly symmetrical and whether two stable states do indeed exist for Earth's axis remains to be determined, as does the underlying cause.
Finally, some readers
might feel that the uncertainties of the above
combined with its potentially sombre consequences provide sufficient
for silence on the matter. I can only say in response to such criticism
that although I belong to no organized religion, affiliated group or
Society, I nevertheless hold steadfast to the fundamental tenet
there is no religion higher than the truth.
Binary Research Institute (Walter Cruttenden, et al).
(2) The Great Year (Walter Cruttenden, et al)
(3) The Sirius Research Group (The Works of Karl-Heinz and Uwe Homann).
The Dogon and
Sirius (Martin Clutterbuck)
Ethnomathematics and Symbolic Thought: The Culture of the Dogon PDF (Teresa Vergani)